Islamic Events Historical Timeline 1901-2000 A.D.

A.D. Events
1901 Abd al-Aziz Ibn Saud captures Riyadh. French forces occupy Morocco.
1902 Birth of Ruhollah Khomeini, The leader of Islamic revolution and the founder of Islamic Republic of Iran.
1903 Birth of Syed Abul Ala Maududi (Founder of Jamaat-e-Islami).
1904 Morocco becomes a French protectorate under the Algeciras Conference.
1905 The beginning of the Salafiyyah movement in Paris with its main sphere of influence in Egypt.
1906 All India Muslim League was established in Dhakka (Bengal)
1906 Hassan al-Banna, founder of the Muslim Brotherhood born in Egypt.
1906 Uprising of merchants and clergy leads Shah Mozaffar ad-Din Shah Qajar to relent to demands for reform, which lead to the Constitution of 1906, providing for a limited male franchise and a National Consultative Assembly which convened that year.
1907 The beginning of the Young Turks movement in Turkey.
1908 Constitutional monarchy (2.phase) in Ottoman Empire (Turkey)
1908 Death of Mirza Ghulam Ahmad.
1908 Inception of Khilafat-e-Ahmadiyya. Hazrat Al-Hajj Maulana Hafiz Hakim Noor-ud-Din elected 1st Caliph.
1911 War of Tripolli between Ottoman Empire and Italy. Treaty of Ouchy (1912).
1912 Balkan wars. The coalition of four Balkan countries defeat Ottoman Empire (Turkey).
1912 Sarekat Islam cooperative founded in Indonesia, part of the Muhammadiyah reform movement.
1912 Treaty of Fez makes Morocco a French and Spanish protectorate, triggering the Fez riots.
1913 Mohammad Ali Jinnah joined All India Muslim League.
1913 Putsch by the Committee of Union and Progress (\”CUP\”) faction of the Young Turks, known as the Raid on the Sublime Porte, results in resignation of Grand Vizier. In control of the government, CUP withdraws from the London Peace Conference and moves the empire close to Germany in the approach to war.
1913 Woking Muslim Mission opened by Lahore Ahmadiyya Movement for the Propagation of Islam.
1914 Demise of Hazrat Al-Hajj Maulana Hafiz Hakim Noor-ud-Din, 1st Caliph of Ahmadiyya Muslim Community in Islam and Hazrat Mirza Basheer-ud-Din Mahmood Ahmad elected 2nd Caliph.
1914 Egypt becomes a British protectorate.
1914 Under Ottoman rule, secret Arab nationalist societies are formed. World War I begins. The Ottoman Empire enters the war allied with Germany.
1915 Ottoman Empire defeats Allies in Çanakkale (Dardanalles).
1916 Arab Revolt against Ottoman rule in Hijaz, Palestine and Syria. Lawrence of Arabia leads attacks on the Hejaz Railway.
1916 By the Sykes–Picot Agreement Britain and France plan post-war division of their post-war spheres of influence following the dissolution of the Ottoman Empire.
1916 Muslims and Hindus join together in Lucknow Pact seeking more self-rule in India and other reforms from the British government.
1917 Britain issues the Balfour Declaration pledging British support for the creation of a Jewish national homeland.
1918 Birth of Gamal Abdel Nasser.
1918 Tripolitanian Republic declares independence from Italian Libya and becomes the first republican government in the Arab world.
1919 After losing virtually their entire empire, the Ottomans capitulate on October 19 and sign the Armistice of Mudros with the Allies on October 30. World War I ends on November 11. Syria becomes a French protectorate.
1919 After the Third Anglo-Afghan War ended with the signing of the Treaty of Rawalpindi, King Amanullah Khan declared Afghanistan a sovereign and fully independent state.
1919 The first revolution in Egypt led by Saad Zaghlul against British occupation.
1920 Armenia first defeated by the Turkish nationalists then the Soviets.
1920 Emirate of Bukhara and Khanate of Khiva conquered by Bolshevik Russia.
1920 Ottoman Sultan Mehmed VI signs the Treaty of Sèvres, reducing the Empire to a fraction of its previous size and allowing for the indefinite presence of Allied forces in Turkey. The treaty is rejected by nationalist leaders, who vow to block its implementation.
1920 Short-lived Hashemite Kingdom of Syria establish, which surrendered to French forces after the Battle of Maysalun.
1920-1922 Turkish War of Independence.
1921 Abd al-Karim leads a revolt against colonial rule in Moroccan Rif, and declares the \”Republic of the Rif\”.
1921 Abdullah I of Jordan in made King of Transjordan. His father was the Sharif of Mecca. Faisal I of Iraq is made King of Iraq. His father was the Sharif of Mecca.
1921 Death of Alahazrat Molana Ahmad Raza Khan Barelvi.
1921 Reza Khan Pahlavi stages largely bloodless coup in Persia.
1921 Treaty of Kars between Soviet Russia and Turkey.
1922 Armistice of Mudanya. Turkish nationalists under the leadership of Mustafa Kemal seize control of Turkey and abolish the Ottoman Sultanate, prompting Sultan Mehmed VI to flee Turkey; the 600‑year‑old Ottoman Empire officially ceases to exist.
1922 Egypt unilaterally granted independence by the United Kingdom. Berlin Muslim Mission founded by Lahore Ahmadiyya Movement for the Propagation of Islam.
1923 Albanian Mussulmans’ Congress breaks with caliphate and reforms Islam in Albania by suppressing polygamy and the compulsory veiling of women.
1923 Mustafa Kemal secures Allied recognition of Turkey’s independence in the Treaty of Lausanne and subsequently declares the Republic of Turkey. Ankara officially replaces Constantinople as Turkish capital.
1924 King Abd al-Aziz Ibn Saud conquers Mecca and Medina, leading to the unification of the Kingdoms of Najd and Hejaz.
1924 The Turkish Grand National Assembly abolishes the Ottoman Caliphate and sends the remaining members of the Ottoman House into exile in a move that begins the extensive de-Islamization of the public sphere in Turkey.
1925 Ahmadiyya Mosque Berlin opened by Lahore Ahmadiyya Movement for the Propagation of Islam on April 26, 1925.
1925 Reza Khan seizes the government in Persia and establishes the Pahlavi dynasty.
1925 The Great Syrian Revolt breaks out across the various statelets of Syrian and Lebanon against French rule, which ultimately was put down by force in 1927.
1926 Abd al-Aziz Ibn Saud assumes title of King of Najd and Hejaz.
1926 Fazl Mosque opened by Ahmadiyya Muslim Community on October 23, 1926.
1926 Lebanon proclaimed a parliamentary republic under French protectorate.
1927 Death of Zaghlul, an Egyptian nationalist leader.
1928 Hasan al-Banna founds the Muslim Brotherhood, a neo-Salafi movement dedicated to social, political, and moral reform in Egypt. The movement would later spread to other Arab nations and to Pakistan.
1928 Turkey is declared a secular state.
1929 Militant conflicts between Palestinians parties and Jewish settlers in Jerusalem over access to the Wailing Wall.
1931 A General Islam Conference held in Jerusalem over the Zionism question with delegates from North Africa, Egypt, the Arabian Peninsula and Mesopotamia issues first Pan Arabic resolution.
1932 Iraq granted independence by League of Nations.
1934 War between King Abd al-Aziz Ibn Saud and Imam Yahya of the Yemen. Peace treaty of Taif. Asir becomes part of Saudi Arabia.
1935 Iran (\”Land of the Aryans\”) becomes the official name of Persia.
1936 Increased Jewish immigration leads to the Arab revolt in Palestine. The demonstrations turned violent in 1937 and met with violent repression from the British Army.
1938 Mustafa Kemal Atatürk died.İsmet İnönü second president of Turkey.
1939 Parliament of ex France protectorate Republic of Hatay decides to join Turkey
1939 Start of World War II.
1940 All India Muslim League at Lahore formally resolves in favor of an independent Muslim state.
1941 British and Russian forces invade Iran and Reza Shah is forced to abdicate in favor of his son Mohammad Reza Shah.
1941 Sayyid Abul Ala Maududi founds Jamaat-e-Islami, the Muslim Brotherhood’s South Asian counterpart.
1942 Birth of M. Fetullah Gulen, the founder of Hizmet Movement of Turkey.
1945 End of World War II. Indonesia declares independence from the Netherlands. New leader Sukarno decides not to implement sharia law nationwide.
1945 League of Arab States formed at meeting in Cairo.
1946 Jordan, Lebanon, and Syria are granted independence from Britain and France.
1947 India gains independence from Britain, and Pakistan is created from the region’s Muslim-majority areas under the Leadership of Muhammad Ali Jinnah. Disputes over the status of Kashmir leads to the first Indo-Pakistani War; Kashmir is divided between India and Pakistan.
1948 Arab countries attack the new state of Israel and suffer defeat in war with Israel. Hundreds of thousands of Palestinians are displaced, Quaid-e-Azam Mohammad Ali Jinnah dies in Karachi.
1949 Hasan al-Banna, leader of the Muslim Brotherhood, is assassinated by Egyptian security forces.
1949 Second East Turkestan Republic overthrown and re-incorporated into Xinjiang.
1951 Libya becomes independent.
1952 King Faruq of Egypt forced to abdicate by the free officers led by Gamal Abdel Nasser.
1953 Backed by American and British intelligence agencies, General Zahedi leads a coup against Mohammed Mossadegh, returning the Shah to power. Death of King Abd al-Aziz Ibn Saud of Saudi Arabia. The foundation stone is laid to enlarge the Prophet’s mosque in Medina. Hizb ut-Tahrir founded
1954 Algerian War of Independence begins. Gamal Abdel Nasser bans the Muslim Brotherhood
1956 Morocco becomes independent. Tunisia becomes independent. Tripartite Aggression in Egypt caused by nationalization of the Suez Canal.
1957 The Bey of Tunisia is deposed, and Bourguiba becomes president. Enlargement of the Haram in Mecca begins. The Federation of Malaya, later renamed Malaysia, gains independence from Britain.
1958 \”Free Officers\” of the army overthrow Hashemite monarchy of Iraq in 14 July Revolution.
1958 October 7, President Iskander Mirza declares Martial Law. General Ayub Khan assumes the powers as Chief Martial Law Administrator.
1960 Mali and Senegal become independent. Great Turk scholar Bedi-az-Zaman said Nursi had died in Urfa (Turkey).
1960 Military coup in Turkey purges executive, military, judiciary branches and university.
1961 Kuwait becomes independent as British mandate. Kuwait becomes the first Gulf country with a written constitution and parliament.
1962 Algeria becomes independent.
1962 Death of Zaydi Imam of Yemen (Ahmad). Crown Prince Bahr succeeds him and takes the title Imam Mansur Bi-Llah Muhammad.
1962 Muslim World League is founded in Mecca.
1962 North Yemen Civil War begins.
1963 Ba’athists and Arab nationalist sympathizers in the army engineer Ramadan Revolution seeing the government as insufficiently pan-Arabic and pro-Communist.
1963 Birth of great Historian Mudaser Ijaz at Old Anarkali, Lahore, Pakistan
1963 The White Revolution, a series of major economic reforms by Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi intended to effect industrial development and redistribute rural land in Iran, though popular also increase social tensions leading to massive pro-Islamic rioting in June.
1965 American Muslim leader Malcolm X is assassinated. The second Indo-Pakistani War results in a stalemate. Malaysia grants independence to Singapore. In Indonesia, anti-communist witch-hunts give political Islamists an advantage over Communists.
1965 Demise of Hazrat Mirza Basheer-ud-Din Mahmood Ahmad, 2nd Caliph of Ahmadiyya Muslim Community in Islam and Hazrat Mirza Nasir Ahmad elected 3rd Caliph.
1967 Beginning of Infitah policy in Egypt as Sadat moves away from Soviet Union in wake of Six-Day War.
1967 Biafra attempts to succeed from Nigeria triggering Nigerian Civil War.
1967 In the Six-Day War between Israel and Egypt, Syria and Jordan, Israel seizes control of Jerusalem, the West Bank, Gaza Strip, the Sinai Peninsula, and the Golan Heights. More Palestinians are displaced.
1967 People’s Republic of South Yemen becomes independent.
1968 Ba’ath Party stages a bloodless military coup in Iraq.
1968 The enlargement of the Haram in Mecca is completed. Israel begins building Jewish settlements in territories occupied during the Six-day war.
1969 King Idris of Libya is ousted by a coup led by Colonel Qadhdhafi.
1970 Death of Gamal Abdel Nasser, Anwar Sadat becomes president of Egypt and continues preparation of the army for the next war with Israel.
1971 Bengalis in East Pakistan under the leadership of Sheikh Mujibur Rahman begin campaigning for independence from West Pakistan, prompting a heavy-handed military reprisal from Pakistani forces. India enters the conflict, causing the third Indo-Pakistani War which culminates in the creation of Bangladesh.
1972 During the Summer Olympic Games in Munich, West Germany, eleven members of the Israeli Olympic team were taken hostage by Palestinian terrorist group Black September in what is known as the Munich massacre.
1973 King Zahir Shah of Afghanistan is overthrown.
1973 Yom Kippur War, also known as 1973 Arab-Israeli War, amounting to a failed attempt to recapture the Sinai peninsula and Golan Heights by Egypt and Syria from Israel.
1974 Beginning of Infitah policy in Egypt, announced by Sadat in an \”October paper,\” representing a move away from Nasser-era socialism, an opening to western capital and a withdrawal from dependency on the USSR
1974 Organisation of Islamic Cooperation conference held in Lahore. Ahmadis declared kafir (non-Muslim) in Islamic Republic of Pakistan.
1974 Turkey launched a military invasion on Cyprus 1974 following the coup d’état engineered by the Greek junta.
1975 Death of Elijah Muhammad, leader of Nation of Islam among African Americans in North America. Warith Deen Muhammad assumes leadership of Nation of Islam and shifts movement toward Islamic Orthodoxy, renaming it American Muslim Mission.
1975 Indonesia invades and occupies East Timor.
1975 King Faisal of Saudi Arabia is assassinated by his half-brother’s son Faisal bin Musa’id.
1975 Sectarian civil war begins in Lebanon. Before it would end in 1991 outside powers, including Syria and Israel, would become involved, more than 100,000 would die and a million refugees would leave Lebanon.
1977 General Zia ul-Haq topples Prime Minister Bhutto in bloodless coup. Zia committed himself to a policy of \”Islamization\” of Pakistan.
1978 As part of the Camp David Accords, Egypt becomes the first Arab nation to recognize Israel. Israel returns the Sinai Peninsula to Egypt.
1978 Communist People’s Democratic Party of Afghanistan seized power in Afghanistan in the Saur Revolution. Civil war ensues.
1978 Imam Musa Sadr, a Lebanese Shi’a leader is apparently assassinated after he disappears on a trip to Libya.
1979 Death of influential Islamist leader Sayyid Abul Ala Maududi.
1979 Religious students in Saudi Arabia seize control of the Haram of Mecca, sparking a two-week standoff with Saudi security forces. The crisis comes to an end when Saudi forces storm the mosque, killing 237 of the 300 men and apprehending the remainder. All surviving conspirators in the plot are publicly executed.
1979 The Soviet Union invades Afghanistan.
1979 Years of political tension and unrest in Iran climax as the autocratic Pahlavi regime is overthrown by a popular revolution. In its place, Iranian clerics led by Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini establish an Islamic government and declare Iran an Islamic Republic. Groups of students loyal to the new regime seize control of the American embassy in Tehran and take 66 officials hostage.
1980 General Evren deposes Turkish prime minister in a coup in which 500,000 were arrested. The military would rule for three years, then Evren acted as president until the end of 1989.
1980 In a move not recognized internationally, Israel confirms its capital as the united Jerusalem.
1980 Iraq invades Iran, beginning the 8-year Iran–Iraq War.
1980 Muhammad Asad publishes his Magnum opus The Message of The Qur’an
1981 The 444-day Iranian hostage crisis comes to an end. Egyptian president Anwar Sadat is assassinated by militants opposed to his autocratic policies and recognition of Israel Succeeded by Muhammad Hosni Mubarak.
1982 Demise of Hazrat Mirza Nasir Ahmad, 3rd Caliph of Ahmadiyya Muslim Community in Islam and Hazrat Mirza Tahir Ahmad elected 4th Caliph.
1982 Israel invades Lebanon.
1983 Second Sudanese Civil War breaks out after central government attempts to impose shariah law on non-Muslims. Two million would die in the course of the 22-year war, which resulted in the grant of automy to the southern part of the state.
1987 First Intifada begins as Palestinians engage in widespread civil disobedience and strikes. The uprising lasts until 1993.
1988 \”October riots,\” a series of demonstrations and other street disturbances mainly by young people, take place in Algeria, contributing to the pressure which together with dismal economic conditions led to the abandonment of the one party system and adoption of a constitution with democratic elements.
1988 Nagorno-Karabakh War, an ethnic conflict between ethnic Armenians and supported by the Republic of Armenia in the southeast corner of former Soviet Republic Azerbaijan.
1988 President Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq of Pakistan was killed in a plane crash caused by a mysterious mid-air explosion.
1988 The Iran–Iraq War comes to an end following much loss of life.
1989 On February 14 Shia religious leader and Iranian head of state Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini issues fatwā calling on \”zealous Muslims\” to kill Salman Rushdie and the publishers of Satanic Verses, which is proclaimed a libel against \”islam, the Prophet, and the Koran.\”
1989 The Soviet Union withdraws the last of its forces from Afghanistan. Afghan mujahideen factions begin fighting each other.
1989 On June 3 Ayatollas Kohmeini dies and is succeeded by Ali Khamenei as the Supreme Leader of Iran.
1990 Iraq invades Kuwait.
1990 North Yemen and South Yemen reunite.
1991 A coalition of United States-led forces attacks Iraq and reverses its attempted military annexation of Kuwait. US-backed economic sanctions are imposed on Iraq. The sanctions are widely blamed for subsequent dramatic increases in famine, birth defects, and infant mortality amongst Iraqis.
1991 Algerian Civil War begins after Islamic party Islamic Salvation Front (Front Islamique du Salut (FIS)), which opposed state planning and supported state implementation of sharia laws, wins substantial majority of first stage of parliamentary elections. A military coup takes place and the FIS is banned and leaders imprisoned. The war would last until 2002.
1991 The Soviet Union collapses. Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan, all predominantly Muslim former Soviet republics, become independent. Armenian military occupies one-sixth of Azerbaijani territory expelling over 800,000 ethnic Azerbaijanis from the occupied lands and Armenia proper.
1991 United Somali Congress topples regime of military dictator Siad Barre. The national military forces disband and form regional militias as part of Somali Civil War.
1992 The 400-year-old Babri Masjid in Ayodhya, India is destroyed by Hindu extremists, sparking widespread religious rioting across India.
1992 United Nations Forces, mainly Americans, enter Somalia.
1993 Oslo I Accord between Israel and PLO signed.
1994 First war between Russia and Chechen Republic begins.
1994 Jordan becomes the second of Israel’s Arab neighbors to recognize Israel.
1995 Israel Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin assassinated by right-wing orthodox Jew over Oslo Accord.
1996 After leading his Welfare Party to a surprise victory in the 1995 general elections, Necmettin Erbakan becomes the first pro-Islamic Prime Minister of modern Turkey.
1996 Al Jazeera Satellite Channel with loan from the Emir of Qatar launches Arab language satellite news service.
1996 Taliban forces seize control of most of Afghanistan and declare the Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan.
1998 Amidst growing criticism of his economic policies, longtime Indonesian leader General Suharto resigns after over thirty years in power.
1998 Bombing of US Embassies in Nairobi and Dar es Salaam engineered by Al-Qaeda.
1998 Former deputy prime minister of Malaysia Anwar Ibrahim, a vocal critic of prime minister Mahathir Mohamad, is arrested and imprisoned on charges of sodomy.
1998 Pakistan becomes the first Islamic republic to have the nuclear power as it successfully conducted five nuclear tests on May 28.
1999 Death of Jordan’s King Hussein. King Hussein’s son Abdullah is declared king of Jordan.
1999 General Pervez Musharraf seizes control of Pakistan after a military coup against the government of Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif.
1999 Indonesia relinquishes control of East Timor, which is granted independence under a UN-sponsored act of self-determination.
1999 Kargil war breaks out between Pakistan and India. Pakistan’s Army captured strategic points in Indian administered Kashmir including the areas of Point 5352, Dalu Nag, Bunker ridge and the Siddle Ridge. Later on Pakistan took control of the entire Kargil District from India but withdraw after intense international diplomatic pressure. However, point 5352, Dalu Nag, Bunker Ridge and Saddle Ridge remains in its control.
2000 By the end of this century, global Muslim population had grown to almost one-fifth (20%) of the total driven by improved healthcare infrastructure.
2000 General Parvez Musharraf overthrows the democratically elected government of Nawaz Sharif in Pakistan.
2000 Palestinians in the West Bank and Gaza Strip begin the Al-Aqsa Intifada, prompted by Ariel Sharon’s visit to a disputed religious site holy to both Jews and Muslims.
2000 President Hafez al-Assad of Syria dies of a heart attack. His son Bashar al-Assad is elected President by Syria’s Majlis Al Shaa’b (Parliament).
2000 Russia occupies Grozny, the capital of Chechnya, in Second Chechen War.
2000 Suicide attack on USS Cole kills 17 US sailors.