Islamic Events Historical Timeline 601-700 A.D.

A.D. Events
604 24 July— Birth of Fatimah the daughter of Muhammad. She was the wife of Ali ibn Abu Talib and all of Muhammad’s descendants are through her.
605 The Holy Prophet arbitrates in a dispute among the Quraish about the placing of the Black Stone in the Kaaba.
610 The first revelation in the cave at Mt. Hira. The Holy Prophet is commissioned as the Messenger of Allah.
610 9 February— The first announced revelation of the Qur’an in the cave at Hira. He is given his first revelation from the Angel Gabriel in the cave. Khadija is the first to believe Islam.
613 Declaration at Mount Safa inviting the general public to Islam.
614 Invitation to the Hashimites to accept Islam.
615 Persecution of the Muslims by the Quraish. A party of Muslims leaves for Abyssinia.
615 Acceptance of Islam by Umar and Hamza
616 Second Hijrah to Abysinnia.
617 Social boycott of the Hashimites and the Holy Prophet by the Quraish. The Hashimites are shut up in a glen outside Makkah.
619 April/May— Lifting of the boycott. Deaths of Abu Talib and Hadrat Khadija, Year of Sorrow.
620 Journey to Taif. Ascension to the heavens.
621 First pledge at Aqaba.
622 Second pledge at Aqaba. The Holy Prophet and the Muslims migrate to Yathrib.
622 9 September—20 September, Hijra—migration to Medina. First year of Islamic calendar.
623 Nakhla expedition.
623 January— Constitution of Medina. Establishment of the first Islamic state.
624 Battle of Badr. Expulsion of the Bani Qainuqa Jews from Medina. The direction of prayer is converted from Jerusalem to Mecca.
625 Battle of Uhud. Massacre of 70 Muslims at Bir Mauna. Expulsion of Banu Nadir Jews from Madina. Second expedition of Badr.
625 Birth of Hasan ibn Hadrat Ali, son of Ali and Hadrat Fatimah and 2nd Shia imams.
626 Expedition of Banu Mustaliq.
626 Birth of Husayn ibn Ali, son of Hadrat Ali and Hadrat Fatimah and 3rd Shia imams.
627 Battle of the Trench. Expulsion of Banu Quraiza Jews.
627 Battle of the Trench. Invasion of Banu Qurayza.
628 Truce of Hudaibiya. Expedition to Khyber. The Holy Prophet addresses letters to various heads of states.
629 The Holy Prophet performs the pilgrimage at Makkah. Expedition to Muta (Romans).
630 11 January— Conquest of Mecca. Battle of Hunayn. Battle of Autas. Siege of Ta’if.
631 Expedition to Tabuk. Year of Deputations.
631 or 632 Tribe of Thaqif adopts Islam.
632 Farewell pilgrimage at Makkah.
632 Death of the Holy Prophet. Election of Hadrat Abu Bakr as the Caliph. Usamah leads expedition to Syria. Battles of Zu Qissa and Abraq. Battles of Buzakha, Zafar and Naqra. Campaigns against Bani Tamim and Musailima, the Liar.
633 Campaigns in Bahrain, Oman, Yemen, and Hadramaut. Raids in Iraq.Battle of Chains, Battle of Saniyy, Battle of Walaja, Battle of Ullais, Battle of Hira, Battle of Al-Anbar, Battle of Ayn al-Tamr, Battle of Dawmat al-Jandal, Battle of Firaz.
634 Battles of Basra, Damascus and Ajnadin. Death of Hadrat Abu Bakr. Hadrat Umar Farooq becomes the Caliph. Battles of Namaraq and Saqatia.
634 22 August— Death of Abu Bakr, the first caliph of Islam. Umar ibn al-Khattab assumes power as the second caliph.
634 Battle of Bosra, Battle of Damascus, Battle of Ajnadin. Death of Abu Bakr. Battle of Namaraq, Battle of Saqatia.
635 Battle of Bridge. Battle of Buwaib. Conquest of Damascus. Battle of Fahl.
636 Battle of Yermuk. Battle of Qadsiyia. Conquest of Madain.
637 Conquest of Syria. Fall of Jerusalem. Battle of Jalula.
638 Conquest of Jazirah.
639 Conquest of Khuzistan. Advance into Egypt. Plague of Emmaus.
640 Capture of the post of Caesaria in Syria. Conquest of Shustar and Jande Sabur in Persia. Battle of Babylon in Egypt.
640 Battle of Babylon in Egypt.
641 Conquest of Alexandria in Egypt.
642 Battle of Nihawand; Conquest of Egypt.
643 Conquest of Azarbaijan and Tabaristan (Mazandaran).
644 5 November— Assassiation of Umar, second caliph of Islam. buried in the house of Aisha in Medina.
644 Conquest of Fars, Kerman, Sistan, Mekran and Kharan. Assassination of Umar. Uthman ibn Affan becomes the caliph.
646 Campaigns in Khurasan, Armenia and Asia Minor.
647 Campaigns in North Africa. Conquest of the island of Cyprus.
648 Campaigns against the Byzantines.
650 First conflict between Arabs and Turks. Khazars defeated an Arab force led by Abd ar-Rahman ibn Rabiah outside the Khazar town of Balanjar.
652 Disaffection against the rule of Uthman.
655 Naval battle of the Masts against the Byzantines.
656 10 December— Battle of the Camel.
656 17 June— Assassination of Uthman, the third Caliph of Islam. Ali ibn Abi Talib becomes the fourth caliph.
657 Ali shifts the capital from Medina to Kufa. Battle of Siffin.
658 Battle of Nahrawan.
659 Conquest of Egypt by Muawiyah I.
660 Ali recaptures Hijaz and Yemen from Muawiyah. Muawiyah I declares himself as the caliph at Damascus.
661 29 January— Ali ibn Abi Talib, fourth Caliph, is assassinated by Kharijites. buried in Najaf, Iraq.
662 Kharijites’ revolts.
666 Muawia bin Hudeij raids Sicily. Abdu’l-Rahman ibn Abu Bakr, Muhammad ibn Maslamah and Ramlah bint Abi Sufyan dies.
669 Hasan ibn Ali, the second imam of the Shiites is poisoned and killed. Husayn ibn Ali becomes Imam of Ali ibn Abi Talib’s followers.
670 Advance in North Africa. Uqba bin Nafe founds the town of Kairouan in Tunisia. Conquest of Kabul.
672 Capture of the island of Rhodes. Campaigns in Khurasan.
674 The Muslims cross the Oxus. Bukhara becomes a vassal state.
676 Muhammad al-Baqir, the fifth imam of the Shiites is born.
677 Occupation of Samarkand and Tirmiz. Siege of Constantinople.
680 10 October— Battle of Karbala and Husayn bin Ali is killed along with his companions. Ali ibn Husayn becomes Imam of Ali ibn Abi Talib’s followers.
680 28 April— Death of Muawiyah. Yazid I becomes caliph.
682 North Africa Uqba bin Nafe marches to the Atlantic, is ambushed and killed at Biskra. The Muslims evacuate Kairouan and withdraw to Burqa.
683 11 November— Death of Yazid I. Muawiya II becomes caliph.
684 Abd Allah ibn Zubayr declares himself as the caliph at Mecca. Marwan I becomes the caliph at Damascus. Battle of Marj Rahit.
684 June— Muawiya II abdicated.
685 Death of Marwan I. Abd al-Malik becomes the caliph at Damascus. Battle of ‘Ayn al-Warda.
686 Al-Mukhtar declares himself as the caliph at Kufa.
687 Battle of Kufa between the forces of Mukhtar and Abd Allah ibn Zubayr. Mukhtar killed.
691 Battle of Maskin. Kufa falls to Abd al-Malik.
692 October— The fall of Mecca. Death of ibn Zubayr. Abdul Malik becomes the sole caliph.
695 Kharijites’ revolts in Jazira and Ahwaz. Battle of the Karun. Campaigns against Kahina in North Africa. The Muslims once again withdraw to Barqa. The Muslims advance in Transoxiana and occupy Kish.
700 Campaigns against the Berbers in North Africa. By the end of this century, global Muslim population had grown to 1 per cent of the total.